Title: Miesto a úlohy materských škôl na Slovensku v systéme komunistickej výchovy (1948-1953)

(Status and tasks of kindergartens in Slovakia in the system of communist upbringing (1948 – 1953))

Abstract: The paper is devoted to issues of preschool facilities – kindergartens (children from three years to six years old) in Slovakia during years 1948 – 1953, that is, during a period of culminating Stalinism. The paper is pointing to the fact that school administrations of interwar Czechoslovak Republic and First Slovak Republic were paying less attention to preschool facilities, which was a result of low employment of women, as well as prevalent societal conviction that upbringing of children is provided primarily in families. The article is pointing to change which occurred in the second half of 1945 but primarily to a radical break after February putsch in year 1948, when Communist Party of Czechoslovakia imposed in Czechoslovak Republic the monopoly of power. The process of upbringing and education at schools of all degrees was realized in line with ideology of Communist Party – Marx-Leninism. The Communist Party included to system of communist upbringing also children from three to six years old, which attended kindergartens. The paper is also analyzing a status of kindergartens after year 1949, when in Czechoslovak Republic initiated the First Five Years Economic Plan, which required a large influx of workers, including women, into all spheres of industry, agriculture and services. A need for female workers brought an issue of providing care for their children. Consequently, state authorities since year 1949 started a network of kindergartens providing all day care, which were obliged to fulfill two basic requirements: to provide board and afternoon sleep for children. This, in practical level, required to prepare dining room, kitchen, transport of provisions and its hygienic storage, also rooms and furnishing for afternoon sleep of children. The paper is also devoted to complex issue pedagogic personnel in preschool facilities. The School Authority during years 1948 – 1953 wrestled with lack of teachers in preschool facilities and with insufficient qualification of pedagogues, which was caused by frequent changes in educational process provided by pedagogues of preschools facilities.

Author: GABZDILOVÁ, Soňa

DOI: 10.17846/SHN.2021.25.1.254-269

Publication order reference:

Slovenská akadémia vied, Centrum spoločenských a psychologických vied, Spoločenskovedný ústav Košice, Karpatská 5, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia, sona.gabzdilova@gmail.com

Source: Studia Historica Nitriensia, year: 2021, vol.: 25, number: 1, pages: 254-269

Key words: Kindergarten; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; Employment of Women; First Five Years Economic Plan;

Language: Slovak